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Gut bless you: The microbiota-gut-brain axis in irritable bowel syndrome

Authors
  • Hillestad, Eline Margrete Randulff
  • van der Meeren, Aina
  • Nagaraja, Bharat Halandur
  • Bjørsvik, Ben René
  • Haleem, Noman
  • Benitez-Paez, Alfonso
  • Sanz, Yolanda
  • Hausken, Trygve
  • Lied, Gülen Arslan
  • Lundervold, Arvid
  • Berentsen, Birgitte
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Journal of Gastroenterology
Publisher
Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Publication Date
Jan 28, 2022
Volume
28
Issue
4
Pages
412–431
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i4.412
PMID: 35125827
PMCID: PMC8790555
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common clinical label for medically unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms, recently described as a disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of this highly heterogeneous disorder remains elusive. However, a dramatic change in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms surfaced when the importance of gut microbiota protruded the scientific picture. Are we getting any closer to understanding IBS’ etiology, or are we drowning in unspecific, conflicting data because we possess limited tools to unravel the cluster of secrets our gut microbiota is concealing? In this comprehensive review we are discussing some of the major important features of IBS and their interaction with gut microbiota, clinical microbiota-altering treatment such as the low FODMAP diet and fecal microbiota transplantation, neuroimaging and methods in microbiota analyses, and current and future challenges with big data analysis in IBS.

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