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Gut Bifidobacteria enrichment following oral Lactobacillus-supplementation is associated with clinical improvements in children with cystic fibrosis.

  • Ray, Kathryn J
  • Santee, Clark
  • McCauley, Kathryn
  • Panzer, Ariane R
  • Lynch, Susan V
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2022
eScholarship - University of California
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BackgroundRelationships between gut microbiomes and airway immunity have been established in murine and human studies of allergy and asthma. Early life Lactobacillus supplementation alters the composition and metabolic productivity of the gut microbiome. However, little is known of how Lactobacillus supplementation impacts the gut microbiota in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and whether specific microbiota states that arise following gut microbiome manipulation relate to pulmonary outcomes.MethodsStool samples were collected from CF patients enrolled in a multi-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of daily Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) probiotic supplementation over a 12-month period. Fecal 16S rRNA biomarker sequencing was used to profile fecal bacterial microbiota and analyses were performed in QiiME.ResultsBifidobacteria-dominated fecal microbiota were more likely to arise in LGG-treated children with CF (P = 0.04). Children with Bifidobacteria-dominated gut microbiota had a reduced rate of pulmonary exacerbations (IRR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.82; P = 0.01), improved pulmonary function (+ 20.00% of predicted value FEV1; 95% CI 8.05 to 31.92; P = 0.001), lower intestinal inflammation (Calprotectin; Coef = - 16.53 μg g-1 feces; 95% CI - 26.80 to - 6.26; P = 0.002) and required fewer antibiotics (IRR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.69; P = 0.04) compared to children with Bacteroides-dominated microbiota who were less likely to have received LGG.ConclusionsThe majority of pediatric CF patients in this study possessed a Bacteroides- or Bifidobacteria-dominated gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria-dominated gut microbiota were more likely to be associated with LGG-supplementation and with better clinical outcomes.

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