The radioprotective effects of guanosine and of inosine on bone marrow cells of mice exposed to acute X-rays (1.5 Gy) were studied by using the micronuclear test. The guanosine and inosine (riboxine) decrease the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and significantly recover erythropoiesis. Also, radioprotective effects of the guanosine and of the inosine on the irradiated leucocytes of mice were tested by the alkaline comet assay. Was shown that purine ribonucleosides diminish quantity of DNA damage and activates repair processes in leucocytes under irradiation of blood and animals. The reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation perform essential role in DNA damaging. Using a sensitive method of enhanced chemiluminescence in a peroxidase-luminol-p-iodophenol system for quantitative measurement of hydrogen peroxide and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid for quantitative measurement of hydroxyl radicals we have shown that guanosine and inosine essentially decrease the yield of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in X-ray-irradiated water. The results obtained indicate that radioprotective properties of guanosine and inosine (riboxine) in the blood cells are operative at the genome level.