Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-containing nerves are extremely numerous in the mucosa of the gastric body. Our previous study demonstrated that depletion of GRP from the nerves occurred in close relation to ulceration in the stomach. The present study deals with the ultrastructure of the GRP-immunoreactive nerves under normal conditions and its changes induced by conditions of stress. The immunoreactivity for GRP was recognized selectively in large cored vesicles in the swollen axoplasm of the nerves. The same axoplasm further revealed immunonegative small clear vesicles which were believed to contain acetylcholine. In materials where the GRP-immunoreactive nerves markedly decreased in number, both large and small synaptic vesicles were depleted from the nerves. These findings suggest that GRP and acetylcholine coexist in single nerves in the oxyntic mucosa, and that by nerve stimulation, they are coreleased into the lamina propria.