The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets containing rice distillers’ by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and gut microbiota of fattening pigs. Twenty-four crossbred finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), 56.9 ± 3.1 kg initial body weight, were randomly allocated to three groups. For 56 days, pigs were fed one out of three diets including RDP0 (control), RDP15 (15% RDP in DM) and RDP30 (30% RDP in DM). With RDP level in diet, average daily gain and backfat thickness linearly increased (p < .05), and drip loss tended to increase (p ≤ .08). In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon profiling showed that RDP was associated with modulation of colonic microbiota composition, especially at family and genus levels. Relative abundance of Porphyromonadaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families in colonic digesta increased with inclusion of RDP, while that of Enterobacteriaceae decreased. The proportion of genera unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae, and Butyrivibrio increased as inclusion of RDP. These results indicate that up to 30% inclusion in diet of finishing pigs, RDP can modulate colonic microbiota composition, and induces an improvement of animal growth and fat deposition.