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Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Team Players in Regulating Asthma

Authors
  • Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Noe
  • Gogoi, Mayuri
  • McKenzie, Andrew N.J.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Immunology
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Apr 26, 2021
Volume
39
Pages
167–198
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-110119-091711
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Type 2 immunity helps protect the host from infection, but it also plays key roles in tissue homeostasis, metabolism, and repair. Unfortunately, inappropriate type 2 immune reactions may lead to allergy and asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lungs respond rapidly to local environmental cues, such as the release of epithelium-derived type 2 initiator cytokines/alarmins, producing type 2 effector cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in response to tissue damage and infection. ILC2s are associated with the severity of allergic asthma, and experimental models of lung inflammation have shown how they act as playmakers, receiving signals variously from stromal and immune cells as well as the nervous system and then distributing cytokine cues to elicit type 2 immune effector functions and potentiate CD4+ T helper cell activation, both of which characterize the pathology of allergic asthma. Recent breakthroughs identifying stromal- and neuronal-derived microenvironmental cues that regulate ILC2s, along with studies recognizing the potential plasticity of ILC2s, have improved our understanding of the immunoregulation of asthma and opened new avenues for drug discovery.

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