The problems linked to global warming imply the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. There are three pillars for decarbonizing energy systems, including the use of renewable energy. These are often assimilated to the electrical energy produced by the sun, wind, hydraulics or biomass. However, this electrical energy does not allow a deep decarbonization of all consumption sectors. The use of gas produced from these renewable energies and called "green gas" can overcome this by substituting fossil gas. The study of the penetration of these "renewable gases" is the subject of this thesis. To analyse the contribution of green gas to the decarbonization of energy sectors, the work carried out uses the long-term prospective model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). A module was created in the model to include a detailed representation of the green gas production system, linking resources to uses. The technologies of anaerobic digestion, gasification of biomass and the transformation of electricity into gas called power-to-gas have been modelled and their contributions in the energy consumption of consumption sectors estimated. The results show that renewable gas technologies play a role in the energy transition by doubling the production of fossil gas in the second half of the XXIst century. This gas allows the decarbonisation of the transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Nevertheless, the deployment of technologies is directly linked to the technical progress expected in the future because, at present, these technologies are for the majority too expensive to be competitive with the use of natural gas without carbon tax. In addition, development stems from the availability of local potential in terms of the biomass resources mobilized. Development trajectories are therefore quite different depending on local contexts, both in terms of resource availability and in terms of the political incentives to promote the deployment of green gases.