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GRANULOCYTE INFILTRATION AND EXPRESSION OF THE PRO-ANGIOGENIC BV8 PROTEIN IN EXPERIMENTAL EL4 AND LEWIS LUNG CARCINOMA TUMORS.

Authors
  • Jiang, Kan1
  • Kwak, Hyeongil1
  • Tosato, Giovanna1
  • 1 Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD 20892, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Jan 18, 2013
Volume
5
Issue
1
Pages
82–82
Identifiers
PMID: 25493215
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Although Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-targeted therapies have shown efficacy in the treatment of certain advanced cancers, benefits to patients have been modest, which is attributed to tumor resistance to VEGF neutralization. Recent efforts to identify new targets to inhibit tumor angiogenesis have identified Bv8 (prokineticin 2), a myeloid cell-derived protein that promotes endothelial cell growth and tumor angiogenesis, but many mechanistic aspects of the pro-tumorigenic function of Bv8 are unclear. Here we demonstrate that CD11b+, Ly6C+, Ly6G+ granulocytes are the predominant cell source of Bv8 expression in bone marrow, spleen and in tumor tissues. Using granulocyte-deficient Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1)-null mutant mice and normal littermates, we found that EL4 lymphoma tumors grow significantly larger in the granulocyte and Bv8-deficient mutant mice in comparison to the normal mice that display abundant tumor-associated granulocytes and Bv8 expression. Conversely, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) tumors grew to a significantly greater size in the normal mice in comparison to the Gfi1-null mice, but normal granulocyte tumor infiltration was modest. Quantitative analysis of tissue vascularization showed that EL4 and LLC-1 tumors from normal and Gfi1-mutant mice are similarly vascularized. These results confirm the critical contribution of the tumor microenvironment in determining the rate of tumor progression independently of tumor angiogenesis, and reveal some of the complexities of granulocyte and Bv8 functions in modulating tumor growth.

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