Flagellin from a number of Gram-negative bacteria induces cytokine and nitric oxide production by inflammatory cell types. In view of the evidence that flagellin responsiveness is subject to modulation, we explored the possibilities that a prior exposure to flagellin might result in a state of reduced flagellin responsiveness or tolerance and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin may induce a state of cross-tolerance to each other. Our results demonstrate that a prior exposure to flagellin results in a subsequent state of flagellin tolerance in human monocytes, THP1 cells, Jurkat cells, and COS-1 cells. Tolerance occurs within 2 h after addition of flagellin and does not require protein synthesis. Flagellin did not induce tolerance to LPS in monocytes and THP1 cells; however, LPS treatment of monocytes and THP1 cells resulted in a state of flagellin cross-tolerance. Flagellin-induced self-tolerance is not the result of a decrease in the steady-state level of toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) or interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK), but it is associated with a block in the release of IRAK from the TLR5 complex in flagellin-tolerant cells. Release is essential for IRAK activity because the TLR5-associated IRAK lacks kinase activity. LPS-induced cross-tolerance to flagellin is also associated with a block in IRAK release from TLR5. These results provide evidence for a novel mechanism of TLR signaling control.