This article reviews the various sites in the foot and ankle where the use of a bone graft to enhance arthrodesis may be indicated. Specific indications are reviewed in detail and demonstrated with clinical examples. Bone graft classification is discussed along with a comparison of autografts and allografts. The controversy surrounding the use of allogenic bone in arthrodesis sites is also thoroughly reviewed. Lastly, this article discusses factors influencing selection of fixation devices and surgical techniques that will promote osseous consolidation and enhance primary union when bone grafts are used in arthrodesis sites.