This paper details for the first time the gonad development characteristics and sex ratio of triploid shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). In triploid shrimp the development of gonad is apparently impaired, especially in females. In the ovary of triploids, germ cells mainly remain at oogonia stage during September through December. From January to February of the next year, partial primary oocytes developed in the ovary lobes. Spermatocytes and spermatids could be observed in the testes of triploids, and a few sperm were observed in the vas deferens and spermatophores. The morphology of sperms in triploid shrimp was abnormal. Flow cytometry was used to detect the ploidy of sperm in the vas deferens. The data showed that triploidy could affect the sex ratio in Chinese shrimp. The female-to-male ratio in triploids of about 4:1 will favor triploid shrimp aquaculture.