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Gold Nanoparticles Perturb Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Antioxidants in the Livers of Male Rats: Potential Impact on Drug Interactions

  • Al-Hamadani, Mohammed Y I1
  • Alzahrani, Abdullah M2
  • Yousef, Mokhtar I3
  • Kamel, Maher A4
  • El-Sayed, Wael M1
  • 1 Department of Zoology Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11566 , (Egypt)
  • 2 Department of Biological Sciences, King Faisal University, Ahsaa , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 3 Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Alexandria , (Egypt)
  • 4 Department of Biochemistry, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria , (Egypt)
Published Article
International Journal of Nanomedicine
Dove Medical Press
Publication Date
Jul 14, 2020
DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S248194
PMID: 32764932
PMCID: PMC7369367
PubMed Central


Background and Aim With the wide applications of chitosan and gold nanoparticles in drug delivery and many consumer products, there is limited available information about their effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Changes in DMEs could result in serious drug interactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to chitosan or gold nanoparticles on hepatic Phase I and II DMEs, liver function and integrity, oxidative damage and liver architecture in male rats. Methods Animals were divided into three equal groups: a control group, a group treated with chitosan nanoparticles (200 mg/kg, 50±5 nm) and a group treated with gold nanoparticles (4 mg/kg, 15±5 nm). Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 10 days. Results Both chitosan and gold nanoparticles decreased the body weights by more than 10%. Gold nanoparticles reduced the activities of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), and reduced glutathione level and elevated the malondialdehyde level in the liver. Gold nanoparticles caused significant reductions in CYP1A1, CYP2E1, quinone oxidoreductase1, and glutathione S-transferase and elevated CYP2D6 and N-acetyl transferase2. Chitosan elevated CYP2E1 and CYP2D6 and reduced UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Both nanoparticles disturbed the architecture of the liver, but the deleterious effects after gold nanoparticles treatment were more prominent. Conclusion Taken together, gold nanoparticles severely perturbed the DMEs and would result in serious interactions with many drugs, herbs, and foods.

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