The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops in agriculture has increased dramatically over the last few decades. Among the transgenic plants, those tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate are among the most common. Weed resistance to glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has been on the rise, leading to increased herbicide applications. This, in turn, has led to increased glyphosate residues in feed. Although glyphosate has been considered to be generally safe to animal health, recent studies have shown that GBHs have potential to cause adverse effects in animal reproduction, including disruption of key regulatory enzymes in androgen synthesis, alteration of serum levels of estrogen and testosterone, damage to reproductive tissues and impairment of gametogenesis. This review emphasizes known effects of GBHs on reproductive health as well as the potential risk GBH residues pose to animal agriculture.