BackgroundFish immunity is not only affected by the innate immune pathways but is also triggered by stress. Transport and loading stress can induce oxidative stress and further activate the immune inflammatory response, which cause tissue damage and sudden death. Multiple genes take part in this process and some of these genes play a vital role in regulation of the immune inflammatory response and sudden death. Currently, the key genes regulating the immune inflammatory response and the sudden death caused by stress in Coilia nasus are unknown.ResultsIn this study, we studied the effects of the Glo1 gene on stress, antioxidant expression, and immune-mediated apoptosis in C. nasus. The full-length gene is 4356 bp, containing six exons and five introns. Southern blotting indicated that Glo1 is a single-copy gene in the C. nasus genome. We found two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Glo1 coding region, which affect the three-dimensional structure of Glo1 protein. An association analysis results revealed that the two SNPs are associated with stress tolerance. Moreover, Glo1 mRNA and protein expression of the heterozygous genotype was significantly higher than that of the homozygous genotype. Na+ and sorbitol also significantly enhanced Glo1 mRNA and protein expression, improved the fish’s antioxidant capacity, and reduced the immune inflammatory response, thus sharply reducing the mortality caused by stress.ConclusionsGlo1 plays a potential role in the stress response, antioxidant capacity, and immune-mediated apoptosis in C. nasus.