Prior studies have demonstrated that sex hormones can influence the glycosphingolipid composition of different organs, including small intestine. However, to date, the effects of testosterone on glycosphingolipids of rat small intestinal mucosa have not been examined. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of subcutaneous administration of synthetic testosterone (500 micrograms/100 g body wt.) on the gangliosides and neutral glycosphingolipids of rat small intestinal mucosa. Their results demonstrated that testosterone administrations: (i) increased the ganglioside content including hematoside (GM3); (ii) increased the total content of neutral glycosphingolipids, which was due to the increases in glucosylceramide and globotriaosylceramide; (iii) increased the activities of cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid: lactosylceramide sialyltransferase, and UDPgalactose: lactosylceramide galactosyltransferase; (iv) increased the percentage of the long chain base phytosphingosine in hematoside, glucosyl-, and globotriaosylceramide; and (v) significantly altered the fatty acid composition of each of these glycosphingolipids. These results demonstrate that administration of testosterone induces alterations in glycosphingolipid composition and glycosyltransferases activities in rat small intestinal mucosa.