The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (receptor for AGEs, RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor. The interaction of RAGE with its ligands, such as AGEs, S100 proteins, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is known to play a pivotal role in the propagation of immune responses and inflammatory reactions. The ligand-RAGE interaction elicits cellular responses, for example, in myeloid and lymphoid cells, through distinct pathways by activating NF-κB and Rac1/cdc42, which lead to cytokine production, cell migration, phagocytosis, maturation, and polarization. Recently, oxytocin, a peptide hormone and neuropeptide, was identified as a novel binding molecule for the RAGE; however, it cannot compete with the interaction of RAGE with other ligands or induce RAGE intracellular signaling. The RAGE transports oxytocin from the blood into the brain and regulates brain functions. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of glycation reaction, AGEs, and the RAGE-mediated biological responses as well as the physiological role of RAGE in immunity and social behaviors, particularly, maternal bonding.