The term gluten-related disorders (GRD) encompasses a spectrum of systemic autoimmune diseases with diverse manifestations. GRD are characterized by abnormal immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Celiac disease (CD) or gluten-sensitive enteropathy is only one of a number of GRD. Extraintestinal manifestations include dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and neurologic dysfunction. Furthermore it is only recently that the concept of extraintestinal manifestations without enteropathy has become accepted. In this chapter we review the spectrum of neurologic manifestations in GRD, discuss recent advances in their diagnosis, and look at their possible pathophysiologic mechanisms.