The distribution in Japanese monkey tissues of glutathione S-transferase activity toward some aromatic nitro compounds was examined by measuring the release of the nitro group as nitrite ion. The activity was especially high in liver, kidney and small intestine when compounds such as 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide, 5-nitrofurfural diacetal and o-dinitrobenzene were used as substrates. The nitrite-releasing activity of the major enzyme purified from rhesus monkey liver was also tested on fifty-two nitro compounds including nineteen nitrofuran derivatives. Among the thirty-three nitro compounds other than the nitrofuran derivatives tested as substrates, the purified enzyme showed activity only toward o-dinitrobenzene, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide, 3,4-dinitrobenzoic acid, p-dinitrobenzene, 2,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 2,5-dinitrophenol, tetra-chloronitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid. The crude supernatant fraction of rhesus monkey liver showed activity in substrate specificity roughly similar to that of the purified enzyme. On the other hand, among at least ten carcinogenic 2-substituted 5-nitrofran derivatives tested, 4,6-diamino-2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-s-triazine, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone, N-[[3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]methyl] acetamide, and N-[5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1-3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide were shown to be enzymatically conjugated with reduced glutathione. Among the other nine 2-substituted 5-nitrofuran derivatives tested, six compounds could be the substrates of the enzyme, and 5-nitrofurfural and 5-nitrofurfural diacetal were especially good substrates. There was, however, little apparent correlation between their carcinogenicity and susceptibility to glutathione S-transferase. The bulky substituents at position 2 appeared to decrease the susceptibility of these nitrofuran derivatives to the enzyme. Both Vmax and Km values of the purified enzyme varied greatly among the substrates, and the optimum pH fell between 7.5 and 9.0 in most cases.