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Glucose Management and the Sex Difference in Excess Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes

Authors
  • Miller, Rachel G.1
  • Costacou, Tina1
  • 1 University of Pittsburgh, 3512 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA , Pittsburgh (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Diabetes Reports
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Nov 21, 2019
Volume
19
Issue
12
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11892-019-1240-4
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewThe protection against CVD observed in women compared to men in the general population is essentially erased in type 1 diabetes. This review will discuss evidence regarding the role of glucose management on CVD risk by sex, with a particular focus on studies of long-duration type 1 diabetes of > 20 years.Recent FindingsAcross studies, women with type 1 diabetes have similar or worse glycemic control compared to men, despite higher rates of intensive insulin therapy. The association between HbA1c and CVD risk does not seem to differ by sex, but few studies have reported on sex-specific analyses.SummaryBeyond HbA1c, there is a lack of published data regarding the relationship between other aspects of glucose management and CVD risk by sex in type 1 diabetes. Glucose management factors do not seem to directly account for the increased CVD risk in women with type 1 diabetes, but may influence other risk factors that play a more direct role.

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