In order to identify the nature of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-expressing neurons and pituitary cells that potentially mediate the negative effects of stress on reproductive performance, double immunohistochemical stainings were performed in the brain and pituitary of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To avoid possible cross-reactions during the double staining studies, combinations of primary antibodies raised in different species were used, and we report here the generation of an antibody raised in guinea pig against the rainbow trout glucocorticoid receptor (rtGR). The results obtained in vitellogenic females showed that GnRH-positive neurons in the caudal telencephalon/anterior preoptic region consistently exhibited rtGR immunoreactivity. Similarly, in the anterior ventral preoptic region, a group of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, known for inhibiting gonadotropin (GTH)-2 secretion during vitellogenesis, was consistently shown to strongly express GR. Finally, we show that a large majority of the GTH-1 (FSH-like) and GTH-2 (LH-like) cells of the pituitary exhibit rtGR immunoreactivity. These results indicate that cortisol may affect the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive process of the rainbow trout at multiple sites.