Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide hormone released from enteroendocrine L-cells following nutrient ingestion. It has been shown to exert trophic effects on the gut. We set out to measure GLP-2 concentrations in blood in children with diarrhoea and malnutrition. GLP-2 levels were measured in blood samples collected from 5 different groups of children (n = 324) at different time points: those with acute diarrhoea, during illness and 3 weeks after recovery; persistent diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition; controls contemporaneous for diarrhoea; stunted children from the community; and controls contemporaneous for the stunted children. Stool biomarkers and pathogen analysis were carried out on the children with stunting. GLP-2 concentrations were higher during acute diarrhoea (median 3.1 ng/mL, interquartile range 2.1, 4.4) than on recovery (median 1.8, interquartile range 1.4, 3.1; P = 0.001), but were not elevated in children with persistent diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition. In stunted children, there was a progressive decline in GLP-2 levels from 3.2 ng/mL (1.9, 4.9) to 1.0 (0.0, 2.0; P < 0.001) as the children became more stunted. Measures of seasonality (rainfall, temperature,Food Price Index, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli) were found to be significantly associated with GLP-2 concentrations in multivariable analysis. We also found a correlation between stool inflammatory biomarkers and GLP-2. In diarrhoea, GLP-2 levels increased in acute but not persistent diarrhoea. Malnutrition was associated with reduced concentrations. GLP-2 displayed seasonal variation consistent with variations in nutrient availability.