Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a newly discovered posttranslational modification (PTM) existing in mammals. A global crotonylome analysis was undertaken in rice ( Oryza sativa L. japonica ) using high accuracy nano-LC-MS/MS in combination with crotonylated peptide enrichment. A total of 1,265 lysine crotonylation sites were identified on 690 proteins in rice seedlings. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that 51% of the crotonylated proteins identified were localized in chloroplasts. The photosynthesis-associated proteins were also mostly enriched in total crotonylated proteins. In addition, a genomic localization analysis of histone Kcr by ChIP-seq was performed to assess the relevance between histone Kcr and the genome. Of the 10,923 identified peak regions, the majority (86.7%) of the enriched peaks were located in gene body, especially exons. Furthermore, the degree of histone Kcr modification was positively correlated with gene expression in genic regions. Compared with other published histone modification data, the Kcr was co-located with the active histone modifications. Interestingly, histone Kcr-facilitated expression of genes with existing active histone modifications. In addition, 77% of histone Kcr modifications overlapped with DNase hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in intergenic regions of the rice genome and might mark other cis-regulatory DNA elements that are different from IPA1, a transcription activator in rice seedlings. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the biological functions of the crotonylome and new active histone modification in transcriptional regulation in plants.