Kidney independent glycosides offer a high measure of therapeutic safety in comparison with kidney dependent glycosides. The intoxication rate lies between 4 and 6%. The pharmacokinetic properties of pentaformylgitoxin (INN: gitoformate) are comparable with those for digitoxin. The active glycoside 16-formylgitoxin (INN: gitaloxin) is formed by rapid deformylation of the formyl residue on the sugar chain. The maintenance dose of 0.06 mg daily, based on the half-life, produces therapeutic concentrations in the range 6-30 ng/ml. The required loading dose, as for digitoxin, amounts to 10 times the maintenance dose.