Fibrovascular polyps, together with eleiomyomas, constitute the great majority of rare benign tumors of the oesophagus. Their size and their frequently high level of attachment sometimes give them a spectacular clinical presentation. The hazards involved in the interpretation of radiological and endoscopic data account for frequent mistakes in their diagnosis. The determination of the pedicle site defines the choice of the surgical approach. A diagnostic error and the choice of an incorrect approach are the two main causes of therapeutic difficulties.