In neonatal hippocampal slices, recurrent spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) provide neuronal synchronized firing and Ca2+ oscillations. To investigate the possible role of GDPs in the synchronization of neuronal activity in intact neonatal limbic structures, we used multiple simultaneous electrophysiological recordings in the recently described preparation of intact neonatal septohippocampal complex in vitro. Combined whole-cell (in single or pairs of cells) and extracellular field recordings (one to five simultaneous recording sites) from the CA3 hippocampal region and various parts of the septum indicated that spontaneous GDPs, which can be initiated anywhere along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, are most often initiated in the septal poles of hippocampus and propagate to medial septum and temporal poles of both hippocampi simultaneously. GDPs were abolished in the medial septum but not in the hippocampus after surgical separation of both structures, suggesting hippocampal origin of GDPs. The preferential septotemporal orientation of GDP propagation observed in the intact hippocampus was associated with a corresponding gradient of GDP frequency in isolated portions of hippocampus. Accordingly, most GDPs propagated in the septotemporal direction in both septal and temporal hippocampal isolated halves, and whereas GDP frequency remained similar in the septal part of hippocampus after its surgical isolation, it progressively decreased in more temporally isolated portions of the hippocampus. Because GDPs provide most of the synaptic drive of neonatal neurons, they may modulate the development of neuronal connections in the immature limbic system.