Getting on in Old Age: How the Gut Microbiota Interferes With Brain Innate Immunity
- Published Article
- Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
- Frontiers Media SA
- Publication Date
- Jul 06, 2021
- DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2021.698126
The immune system is crucial for defending against various invaders, such as pathogens, cancer cells or misfolded proteins. With increasing age, the diminishing immune response, known as immunosenescence, becomes evident. Concomitantly, some diseases like infections, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, accumulate with age. Different cell types are part of the innate immunity response and produce soluble factors, cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons. Improper maturation of innate immune cells or their dysfunction have been linked to numerous age-related diseases. In parallel to the occurrence of the many functional facets of the immune response, a symbiotic microbiota had been acquired. For the relevant and situation-dependent function of the immune system the microbiome plays an essential role because it fine-tunes the immune system and its responses during life. Nevertheless, how the age-related alterations in the microbiota are reflected in the innate immune system, is still poorly understood. With this review, we provide an up-to-date overview on our present understanding of the gut microbiota effects on innate immunity, with a particular emphasis on aging-associated changes in the gut microbiota and the implications for the brain innate immune response.