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Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

Authors
  • Campbell, Oona M R1
  • Benova, Lenka
  • Gon, Giorgia
  • Afsana, Kaosar
  • Cumming, Oliver
  • 1 Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2015
Volume
20
Issue
3
Pages
252–267
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12439
PMID: 25430609
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist, the evidence strongly suggests that poor WASH influences maternal and reproductive health outcomes to the extent that it should be considered in global and national strategies.

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