The main molecular basis of essential thrombocythemia and hereditary thrombocytosis is acquired, and germ-line-activating mutations affect the thrombopoietin signaling axis. We have identified 2 families with hereditary thrombocytosis presenting novel heterozygous germ-line mutations of JAK2. One family carries the JAK2 R867Q mutation located in the kinase domain, whereas the other presents 2 JAK2 mutations, S755R/R938Q, located in cis in both the pseudokinase and kinase domains. Expression of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) R867Q and S755R/R938Q induced spontaneous growth of Ba/F3-thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) but not of Ba/F3-human receptor of erythropoietin cells. Interestingly, both Ba/F3-MPL cells expressing the mutants and platelets from patients displayed thrombopoietin-independent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. The JAK2 R867Q and S755R/R938Q proteins had significantly longer half-lives compared with JAK2 V617F. The longer half-lives correlated with increased binding to the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone and with higher MPL cell-surface expression. Moreover, these mutants were less sensitive to JAK2 and HSP90 inhibitors than JAK2 V617F. Our results suggest that the mutations in the kinase domain of JAK2 may confer a weak activation of signaling specifically dependent on MPL while inducing a decreased sensitivity to clinically available JAK2 inhibitors.