To evaluate the trend of elderly patients visiting the emergency department of a Japanese University Hospital, out patient-based records were reviewed of the emergency department of Kyushu University Hospital from 2000 to 2004. A total number of 7610 emergency patients visited the department during the five year period. The median (25%, 75%) of age was 32 (22, 56). Patients aged 65 years and over accounted for 16% of all attendances. All the patients were classified into 6 groups according to the diagnosis, (1) Respiratory, (2) Circulatory, (3) Central nervous system, (4) Abdominal, (5) Trauma, and (6) Others. The median age in each group was (1) 27 (15, 49), (2) 66 (53, 76), (3) 51 (27, 67), (4) 33 (22, 56), and (5) 26 (20, 46), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference observed, reciprocally except between (1) and (5) (P < 0.05). The patients showed statistically significant difference in the annual transition of the disease (P < 0.0001). In the elderly, the annual transition of the disease showed statistically significant decreases in Circulatory (P = 0.0015) and in Central nervous (P < 0.0001), and an increase in Abdominal (P < 0.0001), respectively. Death rate at the outpatient clinic in the elderly showed much higher than in the younger (P < 0.0001). Admission rate was also much higher in the elderly than in the younger (P < 0.0001). Elderly emergency patients have both internal and external intrinsic factors. They have to be treated carefully since their condition easily deteriorates. Provisions for the problems surrounding the elderly should be made as a nationwide effort.