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Geometry relaxation-induced large Stokes shift in red-emitting borondipyrromethenes (BODIPY) and applications in fluorescent thiol probes.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of Organic Chemistry
1520-6904
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Volume
77
Issue
5
Pages
2192–2206
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/jo202215x
PMID: 22316087
Source
Medline

Abstract

2-Thienyl and 2,6-bisthienyl BODIPY derivatives (BS-SS and BS-DS) were prepared that show intense absorption (ε = 65000 M(-1) cm(-1) at 507 nm) and a large Stokes shift (96 nm) vs the small Stokes shift of typical BODIPY (<15 nm). Control compounds with a thienyl unit at the 8-position or phenyl substituents at the 2,6-positions were prepared (BS-1 and 9). BS-1 shows absorption/emission in the blue-shifted range and a small Stokes shift (12 nm). Compound 9 shows absorption in the red-shifted range, but the Stokes shift (<30 nm) is much smaller than that for BS-SS and BS-DS. DFT calculations propose the large Stokes shifts of BS-SS and BS-DS are due to the remarkable geometry relaxation upon photoexcitation and its substantial effect on the energy levels of molecular orbitals. For the dyes with small Stokes shifts, much smaller geometry relaxations were found. The fluorophores were used for fluorescent thiol probes, with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl (DNBS) as the fluorescence switch. Both fluorescence OFF-ON and unprecedented ON-OFF transduction were observed, which are attributed to the different photoinduced intramolecular electron-transfer (PET) profile. All the photophysics were rationalized by DFT calculations based on the concept of "electronic states" instead of the very often used approximation of "molecular orbitals".

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