Objective: To analyze the distribution of childhood cancer in Brazil and the time between the diagnosis and the start of treatment, according to hospital-based cancer registries (2010-2016). Material and Methods: This was an observational descriptive study using secondary data (36,187 records) from hospital databases of the National Cancer Institute (INCA) and the Onco-center Foundation of São Paulo (FOSP). Epidemiological data were obtained, and compliance with Federal Law 12,732/12 was verified, which establishes a maximum period of 60 days to start cancer therapy after the diagnosis. Absolute and percent frequencies, central tendency and dispersion measures, and the coefficient of prevalence of childhood cancer were calculated. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 9.3 years (± 6.2); 54.1% (n=19,586) of them were males; 32.0% (n=11,440) were aged 0 to 4 years; and 43.4% (n=11,338) had a self-reported mixed-race skin color. The Southeast region of Brazil accounted for 40.2% (n=14,564) of the cases, of which 63.0% (n=9,178) corresponded to solid neoplasms, as opposed to the North region, where hematological neoplasms prevailed (53.9%, n=1,535). Most registered patients aged 0 to 19 years were treated in 60 days or less (77%, n=27,929). However, for 24.0% (n = 2,207) of adolescents (15 to 19 years) this time was more than 60 days after the diagnosis. Conclusion: The characteristics related to childhood cancer varied across the Brazilian geographic regions, and most patients were properly treated within the time enforced by law.