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Geoestatística e análise múltipla de atributos químicos de um latossolo cultivado com soja sob dois sistemas de manejo

  • Silva, Paulo Ricardo Teodoro da
Publication Date
Aug 17, 2017
Repositório Institucional UNESP
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In the Brazilian cerrado the no-tillage system has been adopted expressively by farmers. However, the traffic of machines and implements in conditions of high water content in the soil and successive superficial fertilizations has caused problems of compaction and accumulation of nutrients on the surface, which can lead to increased spatial variability of nutrients and low expression potential of crops. With soil scarification, as a practice to alleviate soil compaction, there may be changes in the horizontal variability of nutrients due to partial soil mobilization. The objective of this research was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes provided by soil scarification in no - tillage system, and to identify by multivariate techniques, the main soil chemical attributes that best relate to soybean yield and productivity components. The experiment was carried out in a dystrophic Oxisol, in the agricultural year 2015/16, in the Experimental Farm belonging to the Faculty of Engineering - UNESP (Ilha Solteira), located in Selvíria - MS. The experiment consisted of two cultivation areas, one under no-tillage system (NT) implanted 13 years ago and another in minimal cultivation scarified (MCS). To collect the data, two geostatistical meshes were allocated, one in each cultivation area. Each mesh was made up of 51 equidistant points with a distance between points of 10 m. The final population of plants, the height of insertion of the first pod, the height of plants, the number of pods per plant, of grains per plant, of grains per pod, the mass of 100 grains, the grain yield and soil chemical attributes were evaluated. The yield of soybean grains was higher in NT when compared to scarified MCS. Soil scarification decreased the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in the 0-0.10 m layer. The values of pH, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents in the 0-0,10 m layer, as well as the K content of 0,10-0,20 m layer, are the attributes that contributed the most to increase soybean productivity in NT and MCS. In NT, the soil fertility is concentrated in the superficial layer, whereas in the MCS in the layer of 0,10-0,20 m. In NT, the CEC presented positive cokrigagem with grain yield at the surface and subsurface soil. In MCS, the pH and base saturation showed positive cokrigagem with grain yield in the 0-0,20 m layer, while potential acidity showed negative cokrigagem.

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