Factor XIII is a transglutaminase essential for normal hemostasis. We have studied the plasma FXIII levels and FXIII activity in 71 individuals and found these to be normally distributed. FXIII specific activity is also normally distributed. However, we show that FXIII activity is not directly dependent on FXIII levels, and individuals with low FXIII levels may have high FXIII activity and vice versa. We have determined the FXIIIA genotype in these individuals to assess whether the variation observed in FXIII specific activity is dependent on specific polymorphisms in the FXIIIA gene. Our data show that the Leu34 and Leu564 variants give rise to increased FXIII specific activity, while the Phe204 variant results in lower FXIII specific activity. We also report preliminary evidence that the Phe204 polymorphism may be associated with recurrent miscarriage. Overall, we have identified 23 unique FXIIIA genotypes. Certain specific FXIIIA genotypes consistently give rise to high, low, or median FXIII specific activity levels, while others appear to have little or no consistent influence on the FXIII phenotype. These genotype to phenotype relationships are discussed in light of the growing interest in the role of FXIII in clinical problems involving an increased thrombotic tendency.