This study was designed to compare catecholamine concentrations among three brain areas of four pureline populations of visually isolated chicks. The purelines used were a commercial male line, a fertility selected line, an unselected fertility control line, and unselected White Jersey Giants. In general, male chicks had significantly larger brain weights than females. Six catecholamine-related compounds (norepinephrine, epinephrine, L-DOPA, dopamine, DOPAC, and MHPG) were measured via HPLC-ECD. No significant differences in neurochemical concentration were observed for any line or brain area due to sex of the chick. The hypothalamus (HT) contained the greatest concentration of catecholamines in all lines, followed by the intramedial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) and optic tectum (OT). The HT exhibited consistent lateralization in all lines with the right HT containing ca. 30% more catecholamines than the left HT. While no consistent lateralization was observed among the other brain areas, the IMHV exhibited significantly different degrees of lateralization among the populations. Neuronal activity, as measured by MHPG:NE and DOPAC:DA ratio varied by line within each brain area. There were line differences for MHPG:NE in the HT, IMHV, and OT, while line differences for DOPAC:DA were observed in the HT. Since differences among purelines have been demonstrated in this study, care must be given to precisely define the genotype of chicks used in behavioral and neurochemical research.