To investigate genetic factors that affect fatty acid composition in beef carcass, we previously investigated genetic profiles of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and their effect on fatty acid composition in fat tissue of cattle. It has been known that sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression levels of SCD and other genes relevant to lipid and fatty acid metabolism in tissue. Therefore, we determined the full-length sequence of bovine SREBP-1 cDNA and then surveyed polymorphisms in whole exons and introns in the bovine genome. Large 84-bp insertion (long type: L) and deletion (short type: S) were found in intron 5 of bovine SREBP-1 in Japanese Black cattle, although there was no notable mutation in exon regions. The associations between the SREBP-1 genotypes and fatty acid compositions/fat melting points were analyzed by using genomic DNA with carcass trait information from 606 Japanese Black cattle. The S type contributed to 1.3% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) proportion and 1.6°C lower melting point in intramuscular fat. Genotyping of bovine SREBP-1 is considered to reflect a genetic variation which is associated with physiologic characteristics of fat tissue in Japanese black cattle.