Twenty-two herbicides were studied in 67 tests for induction of DNA damage, gene mutation and chromosomal changes in vitro and in vivo. Triazine and urea-type herbicides were found to be inactive in all but one test. Of 4 thiocarbamates, molinate and vernolate caused chromosomal changes, namely increased incidence of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in vitro and increased frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow. These compounds, however, did not cause gene mutation and only molinate gave equivocal positive result in bacterial repair test. Out of 11 miscellaneous herbicides, ethofumesate, alachlor, dichlorprop and fluorodifen proved to be positive only in one or two tests. In the light of clastogenicity of some thiocarbamates, serious consideration should be given to start animal carcinogenicity studies with these chemicals.