Blood pressure is regulated by a complex neurohumoral system including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, natriuretic peptides, endothelial pathways, the sympathetic nervous system, and the immune system. This review charts the evolution of our understanding of the genomic basis of hypertension at increasing resolution over the last 5 decades from monogenic causes to polygenic associations, spanning ∼30 monogenic rare variants and >1500 single nucleotide variants. Unexpected early wins from blood pressure genomics include deepening of our understanding of the complex causation of hypertension; refinement of causal estimates bidirectionally between blood pressure, risk factors, and outcomes through Mendelian randomization; risk stratification using polygenic risk scores; and opportunities for precision medicine and drug repurposing. Copyright © 2022 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.