The complete genome sequence of the first equine coronavirus (ECoV) isolate, NC99 strain was accomplished by directly sequencing 11 overlapping fragments which were RT-PCR amplified from viral RNA. The ECoV genome is 30,992 nucleotides in length, excluding the polyA tail. Analysis of the sequence identified 11 open reading frames which encode two replicase polyproteins, five structural proteins (hemagglutinin esterase, spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid) and four accessory proteins (NS2, p4.7, p12.7, and I). The two replicase polyproteins are predicted to be proteolytically processed by three virus-encoded proteases into 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-16). The ECoV nsp3 protein had considerable amino acid deletions and insertions compared to the nsp3 proteins of bovine coronavirus, human coronavirus OC43, and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, three group 2 coronaviruses phylogenetically most closely related to ECoV. The structure of subgenomic mRNAs was analyzed by Northern blot analysis and sequencing of the leader-body junction in each sg mRNA.