activation. Despite this, certain key inflammatory genes, including IL6, VEGF, CCL2/MCP1, VCAM1, SELE and ICAM1 were regulated by I942 without significant c-Jun recruitment, suggesting an additional, indirect mode of action for I942. In this regard, SOCS3 induction by I942 was found to require c-Jun and was associated with suppression of IL6-promoted ERK MAP kinase and AKT activity and induction of ICAM1. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and AKT also potentiated ICAM1 induction by I942. We therefore propose that c-Jun activation by I942 regulates endothelial gene expression in HUVECs through direct mechanisms, involving recruitment of c-Jun or, as for ICAM1, through indirect regulation of tertiary regulators, including SOCS3.