Insect neuropeptides play an important role in regulating physiological functions such as growth, development, behavior and reproduction. We identified temperature-sensitive neuropeptides and receptor genes of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. We identified 38 neuropeptide precursor genes and 35 neuropeptide receptors and constructed a phylogenetic tree using additional data from other insects. As temperature adaptability enables B. tabaci to colonize a diversity of habitats, we performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction with two temperature stresses (low = 4 °C and high = 40 °C) to screen for temperature-sensitive neuropeptides. We found many neuropeptides and receptors that may be involved in the temperature adaptability of B. tabaci. This study is the first to identify B. tabaci neuropeptides and their receptors, and it will help to reveal the roles of neuropeptides in temperature adaptation of B. tabaci. © 2020 The Authors. Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.