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Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that cuticle alterations and P450 detoxification are associated with deltamethrin and DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Ethiopia.

  • Simma, Eba A1, 2
  • Dermauw, Wannes2
  • Balabanidou, Vasileia3, 4
  • Snoeck, Simon2
  • Bryon, Astrid2
  • Clark, Richard M5, 6
  • Yewhalaw, Delenasaw7, 8
  • Vontas, John3, 9
  • Duchateau, Luc10
  • Van Leeuwen, Thomas2
  • 1 Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 2 Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 3 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 4 Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 5 School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
  • 6 Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
  • 7 School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 8 Tropical and Infectious Diseases Research Center, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. , (Ethiopia)
  • 9 Department of Crop Science, Pesticide Science Lab, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. , (Greece)
  • 10 Department of Nutrition, Genetics and Ethology, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium. , (Belgium)
Published Article
Pest Management Science
Wiley (John Wiley & Sons)
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2019
DOI: 10.1002/ps.5374
PMID: 30740870


Vector control is the main intervention in malaria control and elimination strategies. However, the development of insecticide resistance is one of the major challenges for controlling malaria vectors. Anopheles arabiensis populations in Ethiopia showed resistance against both DDT and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Although an L1014F target-site resistance mutation was present in the voltage gated sodium channel of investigated populations, the levels of resistance indicated the presence of additional resistance mechanisms. In this study, we used genome-wide transcriptome profiling by RNAseq to assess differentially expressed genes between three deltamethrin and DDT resistant An. arabiensis field populations - Asendabo, Chewaka and Tolay - and two susceptible strains - Sekoru and Mozambique. Both RNAseq analysis and RT-qPCR showed that a glutathione-S-transferase, gstd3, and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cyp6p4, were significantly overexpressed in the group of resistant populations compared to the susceptible strains, suggesting that the enzymes they encode play a key role in metabolic resistance against deltamethrin or DDT. Furthermore, a gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that expression changes of cuticle related genes were strongly associated with insecticide resistance. Although this did not translate in increased thickness of the procuticle, a higher cuticular hydrocarbon content was observed in a resistant population. Our transcriptome sequencing of deltamethrin and DDT resistant An. arabiensis populations from Ethiopia suggests non-target site resistance mechanisms and paves the way for further investigation of the role of cuticle composition in insecticide resistance of malaria vectors. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

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