Aux/IAA genes are early auxin-responsive genes and essential for auxin signaling transduction. There is little information about Aux/IAAs in the agriculturally important cereal, barley. Using in silico method, we identified and subsequently characterized 36 Aux/IAAs from the barley genome. Based on their genomic sequences and the phylogenic relationship with Arabidopsis and rice Aux/IAA, the 36 HvIAAs were categorized into two major groups and 14 subgroups. The indication of the presence or absence of these domains for the biological functions and acting mechanisms was discussed. The cis-element distributions in HvIAA promoters suggests that the HvIAAs expressions may not only regulated by auxin (the presence of AuxREs and TGA-element) but also by other hormones and developmental and environmental cues. We then studied the HvIAAs expression in response to NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Like the promoter analysis, only 14 HvIAAs were upregulated by NAA over two-fold at 4 h. HvIAAs were clustered into three groups based on the spatiotemporal expression data. We confirmed by qRT-PCR that most HvIAAs, especially HvIAA3, HvIAA7, HvIAA8, HvIAA18, HvIAA24 and HvIAA34, are expressed in the developing barley spike compared within seedling, suggesting their roles in regulating spike development. Taken together, our data provide a foundation for further revealing the biological function of these HvIAAs.