Nodal/TGFβ signaling regulates diverse biological responses. By combining RNA-seq on Foxh1 and Nodal signaling loss-of-function embryos with ChIP-seq of Foxh1 and Smad2/3, we report a comprehensive genome-wide interaction between Foxh1 and Smad2/3 in mediating Nodal signaling during vertebrate mesendoderm development. This study significantly increases the total number of Nodal target genes regulated by Foxh1 and Smad2/3, and reinforces the notion that Foxh1-Smad2/3-mediated Nodal signaling directly coordinates the expression of a cohort of genes involved in the control of gene transcription, signaling pathway modulation and tissue morphogenesis during gastrulation. We also show that Foxh1 may function independently of Nodal signaling, in addition to its role as a transcription factor mediating Nodal signaling via Smad2/3. Finally, we propose an evolutionarily conserved interaction between Foxh1 and PouV, a mechanism observed in Pou5f1-mediated regulation of pluripotency in human embryonic stem and epiblast cells.