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Genome-wide profiling of salt fractions maps physical properties of chromatin.

Authors
  • Henikoff, Steven1
  • Henikoff, Jorja G
  • Sakai, Akiko
  • Loeb, Gabriel B
  • Ahmad, Kami
  • 1 Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Genome Research
Publisher
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2009
Volume
19
Issue
3
Pages
460–469
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1101/gr.087619.108
PMID: 19088306
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

We applied genome-wide profiling to successive salt-extracted fractions of micrococcal nuclease-treated Drosophila chromatin. Chromatin fractions extracted with 80 mM or 150 mM NaCl after digestion contain predominantly mononucleosomes and represent classical "active" chromatin. Profiles of these low-salt soluble fractions display phased nucleosomes over transcriptionally active genes that are locally depleted of histone H3.3 and correspond closely to profiles of histone H2Av (H2A.Z) and RNA polymerase II. This correspondence suggests that transcription can result in loss of H3.3+H2Av nucleosomes and generate low-salt soluble nucleosomes. Nearly quantitative recovery of chromatin is obtained with 600 mM NaCl; however, the remaining insoluble chromatin is enriched in actively transcribed regions. Salt-insoluble chromatin likely represents oligonucleosomes that are attached to large protein complexes. Both low-salt extracted and insoluble chromatin are rich in sequences that correspond to epigenetic regulatory elements genome-wide. The presence of active chromatin at both extremes of salt solubility suggests that these salt fractions capture bound and unbound intermediates in active processes, thus providing a simple, powerful strategy for mapping epigenome dynamics.

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