Fatty acid composition is one of the important traits in beef. The aim of this study was to identify candidate genomic regions for fatty acid composition by genome-wide association study with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in Japanese Black cattle. A total of 461 individuals and 40 657 SNPs were used in this study. We applied genome-wide rapid association using mixed model and regression (GRAMMAR) and genomic control approaches to estimate the associations between genotypes and fatty acid composition. In addition, two SNPs in fatty acid synthase (FASN) (T1952A) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) (V293A) genes were also genotyped. Association analysis revealed that 30 significant SNPs for several fatty acids (C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1) were located in the BTA19 FASN gene located within this region but the FASN mutation had no significant effect on any traits. We also detected one significant SNP for C18:1 on BTA23 and two SNPs for C16:0 on BTA25. The region around 17 Mb on BTA26 harbored two significant SNPs for C14:1 and SNP in SCD in this region showed the strongest association with C14:1. This study demonstrated novel candidate regions in BTA19, 23 and 25 for fatty acid composition.