We characterized tellina virus 1 (TV-1), a birnavirus isolated from the marine bivalve mollusk Tellina tenuis. Genome sequence analysis established that TV-1 is representative of a viral cluster distant from other birnaviruses. The maturation process of the polyprotein encoded by the genomic segment A was delineated with the identification of the N-termini of the viral protease VP4 and the ribonucleoprotein VP3, and the characterization of peptides deriving from the processing of pVP2, the VP2 capsid protein precursor. One of these peptides was shown to possess a membrane-disrupting domain. Like the blotched snakehead virus, the polyprotein exhibits a non-structural polypeptide (named [X]) located between pVP2 and VP4. Mutagenesis analysis allowed the identification in VP4 of a catalytic Ser-Lys dyad that does not possess the common Gly-X-Ser signature of the serine hydrolases. The genomic segment B encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase VP1 with the unique sequence motif arrangement identified in other birnavirus VP1s.