Migraine is a complex disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although family and twin studies show that there is a genetic component in migraine, no genes predisposing to common forms of the disorder, migraine with and without aura, have been identified. Patients with migraine respond differently to a given drug administered. The efficacy of therapy and the occurrence of adverse drug response are a consequence of individual variability. Genetic profiling of predisposition to migraine should facilitate the development of more effective diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The development of International Hap Map project could provide a powerful tool for identification of the candidate genes in this complex disease and pharmacogenomics research could be the promise for individualized treatments and prevention of adverse drug response.