The genus Brassica contains important vegetable crops, which serve as a source of oil seed, condiments, and forages. However, their production is hampered by various diseases such as clubroot and Fusarium wilt, especially in Brassica vegetables. Soil-borne diseases are difficult to manage by traditional methods. Host resistance is an important tool for minimizing disease and many types of resistance (R) genes have been identified. More than 20 major clubroot (CR) disease-related loci have been identified in Brassica vegetables and several CR-resistant genes have been isolated by map-based cloning. Fusarium wilt resistant genes in Brassica vegetables have also been isolated. These isolated R genes encode the toll-interleukin-1 receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rice-repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) protein. DNA markers that are linked with disease resistance allele have been successfully applied to improve disease resistance through marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this review, we focused on the recent status of identifying clubroot and Fusarium wilt R genes and the feasibility of using MAS for developing disease resistance cultivars in Brassica vegetables.