Genetic variation was investigated in the strongylid nematode Hypodontus macropi from macropodid marsupials using the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. A total of 547 specimens from ten species of hosts, representing all of the known hosts of the parasite, from across the Australian continent was examined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct genetic clades in each of Macropus agilis, M. dorsalis, M. rufogriseus, M. bicolor, Petrogale persephone, Thylogale billardierii and T. stigmatica. A further clade contained all specimens from M. robustus and M. rufus, together with two examples of host switching by nematodes into M. fuliginosus. The latter clade was subdivided into three subclades, one comprising specimens occurring in M. robustus erubescens, M. rufus and M. fuliginosus, the second in M. r. woodwardi and the third in M. r. robustus suggesting a relationship between the subclades and the subspecies of M. robustus. The extent of the genetic differences and the fact that several of them occur in broad sympatry suggests that H. macropi as currently defined morphologically may represent as many as ten cryptic species. Limited evidence was found for co-speciation between hosts and parasites; rather most relationships were better explained by host switching.