Design II matings were made among randomly selected clones of 'Arlington' red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Progeny were evaluated in vitro on two regeneration media for callus growth and differentiation. Additive genetic variance was a significant source of variability for nearly all traits evaluated, including somatic embryogenesis. In vitro traits, such as rapid callus growth, colony vascularization, root initiation, chlorophyll production and embryogenesis were highly heritable and should respond to breeding and selection. Dominance genetic variance was significant for only a few in vitro characters. Maternal and cytoplasmic factors were significant primarily in the early subcultures. Highly significant additive genetic correlation of performance on two regeneration media was found. A population selected on one of the regeneration media for such characteristics as improved plantlet regeneration, rapid callus growth, long term colony viability or the frequency of root initiation should show correlated improvement on the other medium. No significant differences for embryogenesis were attributable to differences in the regeneration media used. Furthermore, no interaction of additive genetic effects with regeneration media were observed. These data indicate that improvement in the frequency of plantlet regeneration from callus of red clover could effectively be achieved by breeding and selection for embryogenic types.